Barriers to entry
FISCAL COMPACT ARTICLE 3
The above text is a segment from the European Commission's Fiscal Compact Treaty that relates to national governments' ability to use revenue for investment in social projects such as the building of social housing, roads, rail, renewable energy, or any other initiative that would seek to use public funds for social infrastructure. Member states of the European Union are prevented from pursuing such projects if their overall debt to GDP ratio is above 60%. What this means in real terms is that, despite the fact that financial resources exist at a national level to deal with critical issues such as housing shortages, states are prevented from doing so.
 The Irish state's hands seemingly tied by the EU, there is a distinct lack of political leadership to marry existing resources with needs in the face of EU imperatives toward austerity, and the majesty of the free market.
 Ironically, the way that Ireland's economic system has been structured acts as a literal barrier to entry for people in need of housing accommodation.
The emergence of "anti homeless spikes" has been one rather brutal physical manifestation of how urban planners have innovated in the redevelopment of public-private spaces to discourage people from using them in a way not intended by the owner. Sloped benches and window sills, or benches with armrests that prevent people from lying down are another example.
 Another example is the emission of high pitched tones which are only audible to young people, which serves to discourage groups of youths from loitering in specific areas. Critics of such tactics argue that it uses architecture to enforce social divisions. It is becoming more and more common in many cities and urban centers as public space increasingly becomes privatised.
- "Stability and Growth Pact", The European Commission, retrieved November 2016.
- See: "Ireland Strategic Investment Fund", The National Treasury Management Agency, retrieved November 2016.
- "Housing and Homelessness Crisis in numbers", Simon Community, August 2016, retrieved November 2016.
- See: "Competition and Barriers to Entry", Policy Brief, Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development, January 2007, retrieved November 2016.
- "Hostile Architecture", Wikipedia, retrieved November 2016.